What is Allergy












Allergy is a local problem as the causative allergens vary from place to place both qualitatively as well as quantitatively. India is vast country with wide variations in climate factors in different geographical areas. As the incidence if allergic disease such as bronchial Asthma and allergic rhinitis is quite high in our country, there is an ever increasing demand of allergen extracts for Diagnosis and immunotherapy of these orders. The main reason for this altered response is that allergic people make increased amount of special type of antibody called immunoglobuline E (igE). In the human body, certain cells called mast cells and basophills are involved in allergic reactions. igE produced as a result of repeated allergic stimulation, attaches to the surface of the cells and subsequent binding of the allergen triggers a biochemical reaction, leading to the release of various pharmacologically active mediators, which cause a buildup of the fluid in the tissues and contraction of smooth muscles. Depending on the route of entry of allergens and the site of reaction/organs affected, the patient suffers various allergic diseases such as Allergic Rhinitis (allergic cold), Allergic Bronchial Asthma, Atopic dermatitis, urticarial etc. The substances causing these allergic disorder are knows as Allergens. Allergy occurs when a person's immune system reacts to substances in the environment that are harmless for most people. These substances are known as allergens and are found in house dust mites, pets, pollen, insects, mold, foods and some medicines.

In recent years this demand has increased due to increasing incidence of allergy in the country. Further as more and more physicians have started Allergy clinics in various part of country. The quality of allergens extracts used for diagnosis and treatment has a direct bearing of the diagnostic efficiency and therapeutic efficiency.

The most common causes of allergic reactions are:

  • Dust mites
  • Pollen
  • Foods such as peanuts, cow's milk, soy, seafood and eggs, etc.
  • Cats and other furry or hairy animals such as dogs, horses, rabbits, etc.
  • Insect stings
  • Fungus
  • Medicines

A damaging immune response by the body to a substance, especially a particular food, pollen, fur, or dust, to which it has become hypersensitive.

An allergy is the response of the body's immune system to normally harmless substances, such as pollens, foods, and house dust mite. Whilst in most people these substances (allergens) pose no problem, in allergic individuals their immune system identifies them as a’ threat’ and produces an inappropriate response.

General Allergy Symptoms

When you have an allergic reaction there may be a combination of the following allergy symptoms:

  • sneezing
  • wheezing
  • nasal congestion
  • coughing
  • itchy, watery eyes
  • runny nose
  • itchy throat
  • stomach ache
  • itchy skin
  • hives
  • fatigue
  • irritability